In the framework of the project scientific component, the CEANWATCE, this project addressed the WEFE nexus interdependences and evaluated sustainable bridging-gap solutions. The specific objectives was to perform hydrological and water balance assessments, including water uses within a scenario based analysis under different climate pressures and management practices focusing on the Lake Victoria basin (LVB).

Extreme climate events such as drought and floods with severe impacts over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) have been on the rise over the past decades. These events negatively impact the regional ecosystem, livelihood, and economy which heavily depends on rain-fed agriculture, while in the energy sector largely depends on hydropower, thus shifts and variability in rainfall and temperature could hinder the development and economic growth of the region.

Hydrological fluxes, land use and climate change are significant processes in the biogeochemical processes and agricultural productivity in the Lake Victoria Basin. The objective was to elicit hydrological trends with attendant quality and quantity components, assess land use change patterns as well as implications of climate change on maize yields in the LVB.

 

 

Blue Nile River is the main source of water for hundreds of millions of people in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Natural resources in the Nile Basin are under enormous pressure due to population growth, economic development, increased energy and food needs. Among the multiple challenges the Blue Nile Basin poses, figures boldly the impact of land use on the water quality and quantity. Consequently, the impact produced on human and ecosystem health as a result of water quality deterioration and water quantity depletion is a cause for high concern.

This study Examines the Water, Energy, Food and Ecosystem (WEFE) nexus assessment in the Niger Delta basin of Nigeria. One major component of the Niger Delta basin is that it has been a constant receptor of the unrelenting pressure and assault in the ecosystem and this has adversely affected the living condition of the people.

West Africa, particularly the Sudano-Sahelian zone, has experienced unprecedented climate variability in recent decades. Despite some periods of respite, the statistics do not really plead for a return to better climatic conditions, precisely rainfall. Beyond the structural aspect of this climate variability, many effects have been observed on socio-economic activities and also on socio-cultural practices. This situation has a dramatic impact on water resources and inparticular on the hydrology of West African transboundary basins such as those of Senegal and Gambia.

This report presents the study on hydropower Profit for 4 Dams in the Zambezi watercourse under climate change scenario. It is the result of a comprehensive modelling process as well a

- Annex 9: Hughes D., Mantel S. and Farinosi F. , 2020. Assessing development and climate variability impacts on water resources in the Zambezi River basin: Initial model calibration, uncertainty issues and performance. ACEWATER2 report JRC120956 (Main deliverable)

 

- Annex 6: De Clercq W., 2020. HHD.1 Inception report. ACEWATER2 report JRC122709 (Component of deliverable)
- Annex 7: De Clercq W. And De Witt M., 2020. The Zambezi: guidelines in modelling hydrology and hydropower based on case studies. ACEWATER2 report JRC122709 (Main deliverable)
- Annex 8: De Clercq W., 2020. The Zambezi: guidelines in modelling hydrology and hydropower based on case studies. Addendum A: a map database on the Aquaknow platform to support hydrological modelling. ACEWATER2 report JRC122709 (Component of deliverable)
 
The Zambezi as a shared water resource in SADC presented numerous sensitive issues related to data availability and data sharing. The data needed included climate, flow, agricultural water use, groundwater hydrology and use, water quality and all the flow information. The Zambezi is also used for power generation and this impact on flow.
The information base also included remotely sensed information, soils maps, landuse and the geomorphology of the total Zambezi catchment.
The project also looked at access to existing models and their applicability as management models, with the man aim to also be usable in terms of dam level responses related to power generation.
Three groups were found that developed models for the Zambezi Catchment. The first was a group at TU Delft, the second a group from Switzerland, and the last, a group from South Africa.. The first two used SWAT modelling and the last used the South African Pitman model, also known as SPATSIM. SPATSIM was made available to group and the group was trained to use SPATSIM
The SPATSIM (and Pitman) model is used by the South African water authorities as a water planning model. The model is based on flow measurements and response curves and mainly driven by distributed rainfall data.
SPATSIM was found to be a good model to use for the Zambezi Catchment and ultimate aim is to include SPATSIM in the ZAMCOM database system to be utilized for future water planning. This model was also easier to set up, making use of CRU climate data and all the flow data for the catchment.

The Zambezi River is a very important water resources with its catchment area covering most parts of Southern Africa. It is a habitat to a wide range of plant and animal species. Humanity in this region just like other animals depend on water from the Zambezi River and its tributaries. Its dependence ranges from provision of potable water, agriculture, power, manufacturing, mining, tourism and many other sectors (World Bank 2010). With such benefits from the river, the human population is proved to be rapidly increasing.

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