Extreme climate events such as drought and floods with severe impacts over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) have been on the rise over the past decades. These events negatively impact the regional ecosystem, livelihood, and economy which heavily depends on rain-fed agriculture, while in the energy sector largely depends on hydropower, thus shifts and variability in rainfall and temperature could hinder the development and economic growth of the region.

Blue Nile River is the main source of water for hundreds of millions of people in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Natural resources in the Nile Basin are under enormous pressure due to population growth, economic development, increased energy and food needs. Among the multiple challenges the Blue Nile Basin poses, figures boldly the impact of land use on the water quality and quantity. Consequently, the impact produced on human and ecosystem health as a result of water quality deterioration and water quantity depletion is a cause for high concern.

This study analyzes past and future scenarios for the water-energy-food-ecosystem (WEFE) nexus in the Blue Nile Basin in Sudan. Water availability, hydropower generation, irrigation water supply, and environmental flows are the components considered in the current assessment. A calibrated daily rainfall-runoff and water allocation model was used to quantify the four nexus components and their interlinkages.