Access to energy services is a priority for sustainable economic development, especially in rural areas, where small- and medium-sized enterprises have many difficulties in accessing reliable and affordable electricity. Western African countries are highly dependent on biomass resources; therefore, understanding the potential of bioenergy from crop residues is crucial to designing effective land-management practices.

West Africa, particularly the Sudano-Sahelian zone, has experienced unprecedented climate variability in recent decades. Despite some periods of respite, the statistics do not really plead for a return to better climatic conditions, precisely rainfall. Beyond the structural aspect of this climate variability, many effects have been observed on socio-economic activities and also on socio-cultural practices. This situation has a dramatic impact on water resources and inparticular on the hydrology of West African transboundary basins such as those of Senegal and Gambia.