Dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre du projet E-Nexus, il est prévu le développement et l’implémentation d’un modèle hydrologique pour l’estimation du bilan hydrologique et la gestion de l’eau, la production agricole, le maintien des écosystèmes. A cet effet, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) a été identifié comme le modèle hydrologique à développer sur le bassin du Niger.

West Africa, particularly the Sudano-Sahelian zone, has experienced unprecedented climate variability in recent decades. Despite some periods of respite, the statistics do not really plead for a return to better climatic conditions, precisely rainfall. Beyond the structural aspect of this climate variability, many effects have been observed on socio-economic activities and also on socio-cultural practices. This situation has a dramatic impact on water resources and inparticular on the hydrology of West African transboundary basins such as those of Senegal and Gambia.

The wealth of natural and human resources, coupled with its water resource development opportunities, made the Zambezi Watercourse ideal for assessing current governance approaches and its effectiveness to support sustainable socio-economic development impact, particularly community and livelihoods scales, through implementing the WEFE Nexus. There were three phases to the study: firstly, a collation and assessment of the Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCOM) governance documents and approaches; secondly, evaluating the risks identified in the scientific assessments of the study; and lastly, to support existing ZAMCOM initiatives through practicable interventions that would enhance WEFE Nexus implementation, using the findings from Phases 1 and 2. The study established that there was a wealth of information available about various aspects of the Zambezi Watercourse, including the WEFE Nexus. At a macro level, the ZAMCOM Agreement and the Strategic Plan for the Zambezi Watercourse 2018-2040 address the governance framework and related high-level enabling structures. However, implementation of the governance framework across different geographical scales in the watercourse, particularly at the community and household scales for livelihoods benefits was unclear, as were any tangible WEFE Nexus benefits. The key issue from the scientific assessments was the lack of data on the one hand; and secondly, the quality of the available data could be questionable. This would negatively affect objective scientific assessments that were an important basis for governance intervention decisions. The WEFE nexus governance implementation framework proposed in this study took into account these factors including the unique socio-technical and socio-political dynamics of the watercourse. Consideration of indigenous knowledge systems and traditions and the severe resource constraints that are typical of many African situations were a key factor in the implementation framework configuration. The emphasis of the proposed governance implementation framework is not theoretical or academic, but rather a practitioner perspective that is catalytic, practical and realistic.



- Annex 31: Seetal A., 2020. Water governance, cooperation and information systems: inception report. ACEWATER2 report JRC122955 (Component of deliverable)
- Annex 32: Seetal A., 2020. Water governance, cooperation and information systems: Project Manual “A Catalyst for Practical Governance”. ACEWATER2 report JRC122955 (Main deliverable)


The transboundary Zambezi River Basin (ZRB), the fourth largest in Africa, faces many challenges from
the perspective of the Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem (WEFE) nexus, including, among many others,
hydropower, reservoir multipurpose optimization and release management, rainfed and irrigated
agriculture development, impact of land use and agricultural practices (including livestock and
fisheries), role of ecosystem services (natural parks, wetlands), pressures on resources due to

The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is among the key water resources of Southern Africa. It

sustains the socio-economic livelihoods of a rapidly growing population of over 40

The work addresses main issues related to the groundwater resource and quality assessment over the Zambezi river basin, namely:

The project “Zambezi River Basin Groundwater Hydrology Characterisation in Zimbabwe” was a contribution to the “Water and Cooperation within the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB)” case study project for Southern Africa Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in the framework of AU/NEPAD ACEWATER2 project. The general objective of the case study project was to assess Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem (WEFE) interdependencies across the Zambezi River Basin. The following specific objectives guided scientific activities related to groundwater hydrology characterisation in Zimbabwe:

- Annex 14: Banda K., 2020. Zambia groundwater hydrology and aquifers contamination relevant to WEFE Nexus analysis for the Zambezi River Basin: inception report. ACEWATER2 report JRC122703 (Component of deliverable)
- Annex 15: Banda K., 2020. Zambia groundwater hydrology and aquifers contamination relevant to WEFE Nexus analysis for the Zambezi River Basin: final report. ACEWATER2 report JRC122703 (Main deliverable)
- Annex 16: Banda K., 2020. Database (hydrogeology of Zambia). ACEWATER2 report JRC122703 (Component of deliverable)


This report presents the study on hydropower Profit for 4 Dams in the Zambezi watercourse under climate change scenario. It is the result of a comprehensive modelling process as well a

The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of hydropower operation on surface
hydrology dynamics of the Zambezi river basin, and understanding how such dynamics could be
affected by future climate change. This study entailed the synthesis of existing GIS and
monitoring data, hydrological data analysis, development of a model application of the Reservoir
System Simulator (ResSim) for the Zambezi; verification of the model for historical conditions,
and evaluation of the effect of future climate change scenarios on reservoir water levels, river