The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is among the key water resources of Southern Africa. It

sustains the socio-economic livelihoods of a rapidly growing population of over 40

The work addresses main issues related to the groundwater resource and quality assessment over the Zambezi river basin, namely:

The project “Zambezi River Basin Groundwater Hydrology Characterisation in Zimbabwe” was a contribution to the “Water and Cooperation within the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB)” case study project for Southern Africa Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in the framework of AU/NEPAD ACEWATER2 project. The general objective of the case study project was to assess Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem (WEFE) interdependencies across the Zambezi River Basin. The following specific objectives guided scientific activities related to groundwater hydrology characterisation in Zimbabwe:

- Annex 14: Banda K., 2020. Zambia groundwater hydrology and aquifers contamination relevant to WEFE Nexus analysis for the Zambezi River Basin: inception report. ACEWATER2 report JRC122703 (Component of deliverable)
- Annex 15: Banda K., 2020. Zambia groundwater hydrology and aquifers contamination relevant to WEFE Nexus analysis for the Zambezi River Basin: final report. ACEWATER2 report JRC122703 (Main deliverable)
- Annex 16: Banda K., 2020. Database (hydrogeology of Zambia). ACEWATER2 report JRC122703 (Component of deliverable)


This report presents the study on hydropower Profit for 4 Dams in the Zambezi watercourse under climate change scenario. It is the result of a comprehensive modelling process as well a

The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of hydropower operation on surface
hydrology dynamics of the Zambezi river basin, and understanding how such dynamics could be
affected by future climate change. This study entailed the synthesis of existing GIS and
monitoring data, hydrological data analysis, development of a model application of the Reservoir
System Simulator (ResSim) for the Zambezi; verification of the model for historical conditions,
and evaluation of the effect of future climate change scenarios on reservoir water levels, river

- Annex 9: Hughes D., Mantel S. and Farinosi F. , 2020. Assessing development and climate variability impacts on water resources in the Zambezi River basin: Initial model calibration, uncertainty issues and performance. ACEWATER2 report JRC120956 (Main deliverable)


- Annex 6: De Clercq W., 2020. HHD.1 Inception report. ACEWATER2 report JRC122709 (Component of deliverable)
- Annex 7: De Clercq W. And De Witt M., 2020. The Zambezi: guidelines in modelling hydrology and hydropower based on case studies. ACEWATER2 report JRC122709 (Main deliverable)
- Annex 8: De Clercq W., 2020. The Zambezi: guidelines in modelling hydrology and hydropower based on case studies. Addendum A: a map database on the Aquaknow platform to support hydrological modelling. ACEWATER2 report JRC122709 (Component of deliverable)
The Zambezi as a shared water resource in SADC presented numerous sensitive issues related to data availability and data sharing. The data needed included climate, flow, agricultural water use, groundwater hydrology and use, water quality and all the flow information. The Zambezi is also used for power generation and this impact on flow.
The information base also included remotely sensed information, soils maps, landuse and the geomorphology of the total Zambezi catchment.
The project also looked at access to existing models and their applicability as management models, with the man aim to also be usable in terms of dam level responses related to power generation.
Three groups were found that developed models for the Zambezi Catchment. The first was a group at TU Delft, the second a group from Switzerland, and the last, a group from South Africa.. The first two used SWAT modelling and the last used the South African Pitman model, also known as SPATSIM. SPATSIM was made available to group and the group was trained to use SPATSIM
The SPATSIM (and Pitman) model is used by the South African water authorities as a water planning model. The model is based on flow measurements and response curves and mainly driven by distributed rainfall data.
SPATSIM was found to be a good model to use for the Zambezi Catchment and ultimate aim is to include SPATSIM in the ZAMCOM database system to be utilized for future water planning. This model was also easier to set up, making use of CRU climate data and all the flow data for the catchment.

The Zambezi River is a very important water resources with its catchment area covering most parts of Southern Africa. It is a habitat to a wide range of plant and animal species. Humanity in this region just like other animals depend on water from the Zambezi River and its tributaries. Its dependence ranges from provision of potable water, agriculture, power, manufacturing, mining, tourism and many other sectors (World Bank 2010). With such benefits from the river, the human population is proved to be rapidly increasing.